Flash Instructions for Xiaomi Routers


  • In the past it used to be quite a mission to get OpenWrt flashed onto Xiaomi Routers.
  • Things however changed drastically recently with the availability of OpenWRTInvasion.
  • The following instructions can be applied to the 4A Gigabit Edition, 4A 100M Edition and 4C models.
  • Since there are still many older instructions floating around on the Internet it can be confusing initially to find a working set of instructions.
  • The instructions on the OpenWrt Wiki for the 4C are the best and to the point.
  • The instructions on this page will be based on them.


  • Its always good to understand actually what is happening when you do something so that when things do go wrong you will have a better ability to do troubleshooting.
  • With the latest version of OpenWRTInvasion you need to
    • Connect the Xiaomi router to the Internet (Using the WAN port)
    • Connect your computer (ours is running Ubuntu 20.04) to the LAN.
    • The Xiaomi router by default has the following subnet 192.168.31.x on the LAN.
    • The Xiaomi router will listen on
  • The OpenWRTInvasion invade into the standard Xiaomi router and install a few utilities from the Internet onto the router self.
  • This is why the router needs to have Internet access.
  • For this invasion to happen you need to get a special key (called the stok value) from the Xiaomi router.
  • Once the invasion is complete you will be able to ssh or telnet into the Xiaomi router,
  • Then you can download and flash OpenWRT onto the router using the mtd command.
  • If things go wrong there is an easy way to install the original Xiaomi firmware again onto the device and start from scratch.
  • This makes the devices very robust.

Finding the stok code on the router

  • This section will show a couple of screenshots from the Xiaomi 4C router to get to the stok code needed when using OpenWRTInvasion.
  • These routers are easy to source in most countries. I got one from a local online store in South Africa for ~15USD delivered to my door.
  • I connected the WAN port to my TLE router and connected my laptop to the LAN side of the 4C.

  • The very first screen you are met with can be a bit confusing, since your natural reaction is to hit the Try it now button.
  • You however have to first select the country. So click the Click to select link to select the country first.

  • Not all countries are listed in the select, so I choose United Kingdom

  • Once it is selected you can hit the Try it now button again.

  • On the Internet guide screen you can leave the default and click it through

  • Provide a password for the router and Wireless and click next.

  • Setup is now complete and you can log in using the password you just provided.

  • Here we are logged in.
  • As you can see in the URL Address bar there is a query string with an item called stok which you will use with OpenWRTInvasion
  • Note that this value changes with each session so if you rebooted the router or logged out and then log in again the value will be different.
  • Only the most recent value will work with OpenWRTInvasion

Invading the Router

  • We assume you have an installation of Ubuntu 20.04.
  • Make sure python3-pip and git is installed
sudo apt-get install python3-pip git 
  • Create a working directory where you can checkout OpenWRTInvasion
mkdir xiaomi_flash
cd xiaomi_flash/
git clone https://github.com/acecilia/OpenWRTInvasion.git
  • Install the requirements and run it. You will need Admin rights to run the program else it will not work.
cd OpenWRTInvasion/
#Important to run as superuser
sudo pip3 install -r requirements.txt # Install requirements
sudo python3 remote_command_execution_vulnerability.py
  • This will start the program and ask two questions for it to complete the invasion
Router IP address [press enter for using the default]: 
stok: c047480902024ca71370a39eace78b36
stok: c047480902024ca71370a39eace78b36
start uploading config file...
start exec command...
done! Now you can connect to the router using several options: (user: root, password: root)
* telnet
* ssh -oKexAlgorithms=+diffie-hellman-group1-sha1 -c 3des-cbc -o UserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null root@
* ftp: using a program like cyberduck
  • The invasion is now complete and you should be able to access the router.
  • Note it takes ~2-3 minutes for the invasion to complete.

Flashing the new firmware

  • As you can see from the snippet above there are a couple ways of reaching the invaded router.
  • Please note that the router is fairly robust making it almost impossible hard brick the router.
  • Don't be to nervous when flashing the router as you always restore it again.
  • We will
    • SCP the firmware image onto the router
    • SSH into the router
    • Write the firmware to the OS1 flash partition using the mtd program.
  • Copy the firmware file to the router.

!! Please change the name of the firmware file to match yours !!

scp -oKexAlgorithms=+diffie-hellman-group1-sha1 -c 3des-cbc -o UserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null openwrt-ramips-mt7621-xiaomi_mi-router-4a-gigabit-squashfs-sysupgrade.bin  root@
  • SSH into the device

!! Here also change the name of the firmware file to match yours !!

ssh -oKexAlgorithms=+diffie-hellman-group1-sha1 -c 3des-cbc -o UserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null root@
BusyBox v1.19.4 (2019-06-28 10:13:42 UTC) built-in shell (ash)
Enter 'help' for a list of built-in commands.
       Welcome to XiaoQiang!
  $$$$$$\  $$$$$$$\  $$$$$$$$\      $$\      $$\        $$$$$$\  $$\   $$\
 $$  __$$\ $$  __$$\ $$  _____|     $$ |     $$ |      $$  __$$\ $$ | $$  |
 $$ /  $$ |$$ |  $$ |$$ |           $$ |     $$ |      $$ /  $$ |$$ |$$  /
 $$$$$$$$ |$$$$$$$  |$$$$$\         $$ |     $$ |      $$ |  $$ |$$$$$  /
 $$  __$$ |$$  __$$< $$  __|        $$ |     $$ |      $$ |  $$ |$$  $$<
 $$ |  $$ |$$ |  $$ |$$ |           $$ |     $$ |      $$ |  $$ |$$ |\$$\
 $$ |  $$ |$$ |  $$ |$$$$$$$$\       $$$$$$$$$  |       $$$$$$  |$$ | \$$\
 \__|  \__|\__|  \__|\________|      \_________/        \______/ \__|  \__|
root@XiaoQiang:~# cd /tmp
root@XiaoQiang:/tmp# mv openwrt-ramips-mt7621-xiaomi_mi-router-4a-gigabit-squashfs-sysupgrade.bin openwrt.bin
root@XiaoQiang:/tmp# mtd -e OS1 -r write openwrt.bin OS1
Unlocking OS1 ...
Erasing OS1 ...
  • If all goes well the device will reboot.
  • Keep an eye on the orange LED if it flashes you're in business since it is related to OpenWRT.
  • While it flashes it means OpenWRT is busy creating its working filesystem on the flash chip.
  • Remember that devices with 128M flash will take longer to settle down eventually.
  • Once everything settles down you should have two blue LEDs.
  • Now you can try out your new firmware.
  • If things however did now work according to plan the next section is for you.

De-Bricking The Xiaomi Router

  • There is an awesome write-up with some YouTube videos on how to de-brick and restore the router's original firmware.
  • One point if interest is if you run a Linux environment you can simply install Wine and run the pxesrv.exe program as root.
sudo wine pxesrv.exe